Four Cs’ of HRM

This leads to a ‘map of HRM territory,’ the core of which Beer et al. refer to as the ‘four Cs’:
Competence of employees: High competence creates a positive attitude towards learning and development.

Commitment of employees: High commitment means that employees will be motivated to ‘hear, understand, and respond’ to management’s communication relating to the organisation of work.

Congruence between the goals of employees and those of the organisation: Higher congruence is a reflection of policies and practices which bring about a ‘higher coincidence of interests among management, shareholders and workers.

Cost effectiveness of HRM practices: ‘means that the organisation’s human resource costs – wages, benefits, and indirect costs such as strikes, turnover and grievances – have been kept equal to or less than those of competitors’.’

Beer et al. further say, ‘There can be no standard or universal “theory” or “method” of HRM but, rather, a need for analytical knowledge of basic principles and how these can be adapted and developed innovatively to meet a range of individual, organisational and societal outcomes.’

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