Methods of Off-the-Job Training

Off-the-job training refers to the type of training in which trainees are taken from the job and placed in a training institutes or academic organizations in different places where they will be provided training. Such as, one trainee is placed in the Information Technology Institute (ITI) of Dhaka University to take training on Statistical Quality Control Techniques and then it will be off-the-job training. Off-the-training has a number of methods:

1. Lectures: This is quick and simple way of providing knowledge to large number of trainees particularly in giving rules, procedures or methods. Here, speakers give lectures on a particular issue or on variety of issues through which facts, concepts, principles, attitudes, theories and problem-solving abilities are taught. It is useful when a large group is to be trained within a short time.

2) Conference and Seminar: It is a formal meeting of trainees in which the leader seeks to develop knowledge and understanding by obtaining oral participation of trainees. It tries to build up ideas jointly contributed by the participants. It emphasizes on small group discussions on a specific subject matter.

3) Audio-visual based training: Here, materials like videodiscs, videocassettes, and films are used in skills training with the limitation that there is no interaction between the trainer and the trainee. Trainees observe the audio-visual manner of doing a particular job and learn the method from it. Videoconferencing is a growing technique for skills training today.

4) Programmed instruction: It is a systematic method for training job skills involving presentation of questions or facts, allowing the person to respond and giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers. Trainees will participate in such type of session and be skilled with information and method to do a particular job efficiently.

5) Interactive video-training: It combines a computer and key-board, a video screen material stored on a video disc, and video camera and tape into one system with a ‘doctor’ who comes at interval with questions and with correct answer after being answered by the trainee on the screen from among options. The trainee can repeat the exercise until he or she is satisfied.

6) Simulation Exercise: It explicitly places the trainees in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions. Simulation activities include case studies, experimental exercises, complex computer modeling, and vestibule training. Other than these training, there are training for special purpose such as literacy training, AIDS education, values training, diversity training, customer service training, teamwork and empowerment training, international business training that prepares employees for special situations.

Step- 5: Validation of the Training Programme
Validation of the training programme would be made to make it effective and result oriented. It should be listed before a representative audience. Based on final revisions of pilot results a budget is prepared for the training programme. It is an interactive process with other steps in the training programme development process. Budget constraints may limit the human resources manager’s alternatives and must therefore be considered during all phases of the development.

Step-6: Develop Budget
At this stage of the training program development process, human resource management will prepare a training budget through in interactive process with other steps to conduct the training program without any financial constraints. Training costs include staff planning time, trainee wages, trainer wages, direct expenses such as the cost of training materials, travel, accommodation, meals, breakfast, refreshment, certificate printing, venue charges, remuneration of the internal and external trainers etc.

Step-7: Selection of Trainers
Effective trainer is one of the fundamental prerequisites for the successful training. Organisations may use their own staff or may bring trainers from outside under contract or may use a combination of both the options for giving training. Staff trainers are full-time specialists on the organisational payroll and part-time training are less expensive than trainers hired from outside.

Step-8: Implementation of Training Programme
Training programme is now ready for implementation. All physical facilities are to be arranged and make fit for the trainees and trainers. People must feel comfort, interested and committed while they are in their desired training. The whole environment should be conducive to effective learning.

Step-9: Evaluation of Training Programme
Training must be evaluated by systematically documenting the outcomes of the training in terms of how trainees actually behave back on their jobs and the relevance of the trainees behaviour to the objectives of the organisation. Effective criteria that are used to evaluate training focus on outcomes. Experts agree on four outcomes of the training programme.

Training Outcomes
Experts agree on four outcomes of the training programme.They are:
1) Reaction-bfeeling of trainees to the training programme;
2) Learning or knowledge- acquired knowledge through training experience. It uses feedback devices or pre-and post-tests to measure what learners have actually learned;
3) Behaviour- change in behaviour resulted from the training; and
4) Results –level of improvement in job performance and in organizational productivity, quality, turnover or accident reductions etc.

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