Personnel planning and Recruitment
1-Developing personnel plans requires three forecasts: one for personnel requirements, one for the supply of outside candidates, and one for the supply of inside candidates. To predict the need for personnel, first project the demand for the product or service. Next project the volume of production required to meet these estimates; finally, relate personnel needs to these production estimates.

2-.Once personnel needs are projected, the next step is to build up a pool of qualified applicants. We discussed several sources of candidates, including internal sources (or promotion from within), advertising, employment agencies, executive recruiters, college recruiting, the internet, and referrals and walk-ins. Remember that it is unlawful to discriminate against any individual with respect to employment because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or age (unless religion, sex, or Origin is bona fide occupational qualifications).

3-The initial selection screening in most organizations begins with an application form. Most managers use these just to obtain background data. However, you can use application form data to make predictions about the applicant’s future performance. For example, application forms have been used to predict job tenure, job success, and employee theft.

4-Personnel planning and recruiting directly affect employee commitment because commitment depends on hiring employees who have the potential to develop. And the more qualified applicants you have, the higher your selection standards can be. Selection usually begins with effective testing and interviewing, to which we now turn.

Employee Testing & Selection
1. In this chapter we discussed several techniques for screening and selecting job candidates The first was testing.

2-test Validity answers the question, “What does this test measure we discussed criterion validity and content validity. Criterion validity means demonstrating that those who do well on the test do well on the job; content validity is demonstrated by showing that the test constitutes a fair sample of the content of the job.

3. as used by psychologists, the term reliability always means consistency. One way to measure reliability is to administer the same (or equivalent) tests to the same people at two different points in time. Or you could focus on internal consistency, comparing the responses to roughly equivalent items on the same test.

4-There are many types of personnel tests in use, including intelligence tests, tests of Physical skills, tests of achievement, aptitude tests, interest inventories, and personality tests.

5- For a selection test to be useful scores should be predictably related to performance on the job; you must validate the test. This requires five steps: (a) analyze the job, (b) choose your tests, (c) Administer the test, (d)relate test scores and criteria (e)cross-validate and revalidate the test.

6- Under equal rights legislation, an employer may have to be able to prove that his or her tests are predictive of success or failure on the job. This usually requires a predictive validation study, although other means of validation are often acceptable.

7. Some basic testing guidelines include (a) use tests as supplement to, (b) validate.
The tests for appropriate jobs, (c) analyze all current hiring and promotion standards, (d) beware of certain tests,
(e) use a certified psychologist, and (f) maintain good test conditions.

8. The work sampling selection technique is based on “the assumption that the best Indicator of future performance is past performance.” Here you use the applicant’s-
Actual performance on the same (or very similar) job to predict his or her future job performance. The steps are (a) analyze applicant ‘s previous work experience (b)have experts list component tasks for job openings, (c) select crucial tasks as work sample measures, (d) break down these tasks into steps, (e) test the applicant, and (f) relate the applicant’s work sample score to his or her performance on the Job.

9. Management assessment centers are a third screening device and expose applicants to a series of real-life exercise. Performance is observed and assessed by experts, who then check their assessments by observing the participants when they are back at their jobs. Examples of “real-life” exercises include a simulated business game, an in-basket exercise, and group discussions.

10. Even though most people prefer not to give bad references, most companies still carry out some sort of reference check on their candidates. These can be useful in raising red flags, and structured questionnaires can improve the usefulness of the responses you receive.

11. Other selection tools we discussed include the polygraph, honesty tests, graphology, and the physical examination.

Interviewing Candidates
1. There are several basic types of interviews: situational, nondirective, structured, sequential, panel, stress, and appraisal interviews. All interviews can be classified according to content, structure, purpose, and method of administration.

2. Several factors and problems can undermine the usefulness of an interview. These are making premature decisions, letting unfavorable information predominate, and not knowing the requirements of the job, being under pressure to hire, not allowing for the candidate-order effect, and sending visual cues to telegraph enthusiasm.

3. the five steps in the interview include: plan, establish rapport, question the candidate, close the interview, and review the data.

4. Guidelines for interviewers include: Use a structured guide, know the requirements of the job, focus on traits you can more accurately evaluate (like motivation), let the interviewee do most of the talking, delay your decision until after the interview, and remember the EEOC requirements.

5- The steps in a structured or situational interview are: job analysis, evaluate the job duty information, develop interview questions with critical incidents, develop benchmark answers, appoint an interview committee, and implement.

6. As an interviewee, keep in mind that interviewers tend to make premature decisions and let unfavorable information predominate; your appearance and enthusiasm are important; you should get the interviewer to talk; it is important to prepare before walking in-get to know the job and the problems the interviewer wants solved; and you should stress your enthusiasm and motivation to work, and how your accomplishments match your interviewer’s needs.

7. a quick procedure for conducting an interview is to develop behavioral specifications; determine the basic intellectual, motivation, personality, and experience factors to probe for; use an interview plan; and then match the individual to the job… The procedure is especially useful in small firms with HR groups, but can be used in large firms as well.

8. Value-based hiring can contribute to building employee commitment. It assume5 that management has clarified the values it cherishes (such as quality at Toyota) spends adequate time in the selection process, and provides for realistic previews.

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