Off-the-Job Methods

Off-the-job management development techniques are wide in variety. Few of the popular methods are discussed in a nutshell below:

1) Lectures and Conferences: Lecture courses offer an opportunity for managers or potential managers to acquire knowledge and develop their conceptual and analytical abilities. Conference and seminar are structured around a small-group meeting in which a leader trained in group decision methods, helps the group to identify and define a problem, guides the discussion so that it is constantly directed toward the problem, and summarizes the principles or explanations that reflect the consensus of the group in dealing with the problem.

2) Computer-assisted Instruction: A business problem is given to the participants and they analyze the situation and make a decision with the help of computer. The trainer ascertains the correctness of the simulation and provides feedback to the participants. Computer models can provide participants with sufficient realism to allow practice applications without undue risk that the organization’s operations will be disrupted or that the firm will lose money.

3) Seminar: Participants take part in a discussion where a person present the keynote paper and some selected discussants participate in the discussion on the issues specified in the paper. Participants may also take part in the discussion. Participants will be enriched with the documents and discussions.

4) Laboratory Technique: This is experienced based learning workshops that utilize one or more approaches such as case discussions/studies, incidence process, role playing, computer simulations, management games or problem solving exercises, and/or relatively unstructured group discussions.

5) Transactional analysis: It is highly participative development technique focuses on viewing the interactions between individuals and between groups as interactions. Transactional analysis is based on the concept that each person has a three-dimensional behaviour pattern based on three ego states-parent, child and adult. It helps managers understand others better and assists them in altering their responses so as to produce more effective results.

6) Behavioural Modeling: This technique of development focuses on learning through observation or imagination. It consists of presenting or showing participants a particular behaviour or way of doing something and then having the participants practice the behaviour through role playing

7) In-basket Training: This development method consists of giving trainees a set of memos, letters, and other items that a manager might find in the basket upon arriving at work

8) University-related programme: Many universities and colleges provide group, individualized and degree programmes related to business and management. These programmes provide opportunities to the working managers to have wide variety of knowledge for enhancing their efficiency.

9) In-house development center: This is a organization/enterprise-based development method for exposing prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills.

10) Programmed Instruction or Manual: It condenses the materials to be learned into highly organized, logical sequences, which require the trainee to respond

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